Thanks to its location in the Mediterranean climatic zone, Turkey should have been experiencing quite temperate conditions. However, the combination of the diversity of its landscape and the mountains that run parallel to the coasts has such a great impact on Turkey weather disposition, that there are marked climatic differences from one region to the other. As a general rule though, weather in the coastal areas is predominantly Mediterranean and mild, taking a sharp turn towards a more steppe type in the inland Anatolian plateau; the region experiences hot summers, cold winters and inadequate precipitation.
Weather in Aegean and Mediterranean coasts is characterised by cool though rainy winters, hot and rather dry summers and annual precipitation that varies between from 580 to 1,300 millimetres. Rainfall is most frequent along the Black Sea coast; its eastern part is effectively the only area in Turkey that experiences rainfall throughout the year, receiving as much as 2,200 millimetres annually.
Rain clouds do not usually penetrate Turkey’s interior areas; instead their journey is cut short by the imposing figure of the Taurus Mountains that rises near the coast, effectively forcing them to drop most of their water on the coastal region.
This effect is more pronounced in the Eastern region of Anatolia; exceeding elevations of 2500-3000 m, the Northern Black Sea Mountains and the Caucasian Mountain are largely responsible for the area’s dominating continental climate as well as the great length and extreme cold of its winter season. During this season, the mountainous areas in the east, are permanently under the spell of freezing weather conditions; temperatures usually hover between 30°C to -38°C, snow remains on the ground for up to 120 days of the year and whole villages remain isolated for several days in a area, when storms are at their most ferocious.
ANNUAL AVERAGE PRECIPITATION OF TURKEY
During the summer season, temperatures usually remain over 30°C, and hot, dry conditions dominate. Spring and autumn are generally mild, yet frequently intercepted by sudden hot and cold spells.
LONG-TERM MEAN TEMPERATURE OF TURKEY
Although Istanbul and the area around the Sea of Marmara occasionally experience temperatures bellow zero, the climate is predominantly moderate; average winter temperatures stand at 4°C, soaring to 27°C during the summer months. Western Anatolia and the southern coast of Anatolia experience similar mild Mediterranean conditions, with average temperatures of 9°C in winter and 29°C in summer.
The climate of the Anatolian Plateau is classified as steppe, with marked variation between daytime and night time temperatures; the average temperature is 23°C in summer and -2°C in winter.